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Jet Engines – Design, Development and Operation

975

Authors: Jaganathan C, Capt S K Jain

ISBN: 9789380381497

Copy Right Year: 2017

Pages:  624

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

SKU: 9789380381497 Category:

Description

This book deals with the design, development and operation of gas turbine engines meant for powering aircrafts with due emphasis on military application. The book handles all the three major disciplines – design, development and operation – knitted seamlessly together to give a glimpse of effect or influence of one upon the other. Certification requirements are dealt at great length with reference to the military standards. Each component of the engine, along with its modules and its sub systems is discussed thread bare for an indepth understanding. Besides, design, development and operation of the engine, the requirements for certification and quality control exercise by a third agency is also brought out in a holistic manner so that the designer gets his product certified for use by operators. Most of the issues discussed in the book are the experience of the authors associated during design, development, maintenance and operation of fighter class aero-engine during their service and the problems narrated are not fictitious but true. The content of the book is dynamic owing to the present day technological sophistication in the field of design of gas turbine aero-engine and its associated branches of engineering.

Additional information

Weight .9 kg
Dimensions 23 × 17 × 3 cm

Table of Content

CHAPTER 1 POWER PLANTS OF AIRCRAFT
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Subsystems of Engine
1.2.1 Main Fuel System
1.2.2 Afterburner Fuel System
1.2.3 Lubrication System
1.2.4 Exhaust Nozzle Actuation System
1.2.5 Variable Guide Vane System
1.2.6 Secondary Air System
1.2.7 Electrical System
1.2.8 Control System
1.2.9 Starting and Ignition System
1.2.10 Surge Control System
1.2.11 Manual Fuel Control System
1.2.12 System for Firing of External Stores
1.3 Modules and its Constructional Features
1.3.1 Air Intake
1.3.2 Fan or Low Pressure Compressor Module
1.3.3 High Pressure Compressor Module
1.3.4 Combustor Module
1.3.5 Turbine Module
1.3.6 Exhaust Nozzle Module
1.3.7 Accessory Gearbox Module
1.3.8 Subsystems of an Engine
CHAPTER 2 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF A JET ENGINE: AN OVERVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Design
2.2.1 Inlet Module
2.2.2 Fan or Low Pressure Compressor Module
2.2.3 High Pressure Compressor Module
2.2.4 Combustion Chamber
2.2.5 High Pressure Turbine Unit
2.2.6 Low Pressure Turbine Unit
2.2.7 Afterburner Unit
2.2.8 Accessory Gearbox
2.2.9 Rotor Dynamics of the Engine
2.2.10 Subsystems
2.3 Developmental Activities for Propulsion System
2.4 Operation of the Engine
CHAPTER 3 RISK AND ITS MANIFESTATIONS
CHAPTER 4 DEFECT, UNCERTAINTY, DANGER, RISK AND SAFETY
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Defect
4.3 Uncertainty
4.4 Danger
4.5 Risk
4.6 Safety
4.7 Bathtub Curve
4.8 Weibull Analysis
4.9 Cumulative Sum Chart
4.10 Fault Tree Analysis
4.11 Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
4.12 Hazard Analysis
CHAPTER 5 VARIOUS RISK ASSESSMENTS IN AN ENGINE ENVIRONMENT
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Failures and its Implications
5.3 Common Mode Failures
5.3.1 Failure of Common Fuel Supply System to the Engines from
the Aircraft-integral Tank (Twin Engine Configured Aircraft)
5.3.2 Clogging of Filter of the Electrical Pump meant for Supplying
Fuel to both the Booster Pumps of the Engines
(Twin Engine Configured Aircraft)
5.3.3 Frequent Tight Pull up of the Aircraft with Excessive “g” Loads
5.3.4 Frequent Heavy Landing of the Aircraft with Excessive Vertical
“g” Loads
5.3.5 Failure of High-energy Mechanical Components
5.3.6 Failure of Fuel or Oil System Pipelines of both Aircraft and
Engine Leading to Fire on Aircraft
5.3.7 Failure of Inlet Control System of Aircraft, meant for Supply of
Atmospheric Air to the Engine (Engine Breather Conduit)
5.3.8 Hot Gas Leak of any one of the Engines Leading to Fire in Aircraft
5.3.9 Failure of both Controllers of Engine due to Failure of Common
Sensors
5.3.10 Failure of Digital Electronics Controller Unit (DECU) Fabricated
and Supplied from same Faulty Source
5.3.11 Failure of Digital Electronics Controller Unit due to Identical
Location on the Engine having Identical Vibratory Source
5.3.12 Failure of Digital Electronics Controller Unit due to Usage of
Identical Faulty Rubber Components Located on the Engine
5.3.13 Over-speed of the Engine due to Faulty Controllers Controlling
the Engine
5.4 Common Mode Failures in a Single Engine Aircraft
5.4.1 Failure of both Digital Electronics Controller Unit (DECU)
due to Failures of Sensors of the Engine
5.4.2 Failure of Power Supply to both Digital Electronics Controller
Unit (DECU)
5.4.3 Failure of Electrical Supply to various Electromagnetic Valves
Located on Engine and its Subsystems
5.4.4 Failure of Pressure and Temperature Sensors Located at the Inlet
of the Engine due to Foreign Object Damage (Sensors like
Pitot-static Probe, Thermocouple)
5.4.5 Failure of Mounts of both Digital Electronic Controller Units
Located on the Engine
5.4.6 Failure of Digital Electronic Controller due to Faulty
Aero-thermodynamic Look-up Tables
5.4.7 Improper Limits Set on Rate Rising Parameters of the Engine
5.4.8 Faulty Behaviour of Weight On Wheels (WOW) Switch
Leading to Failure of Digital Electronics Controller
5.4.9 Degraded Performance of Digital Electronics Controller Unit
due to Improper Look-up Table
5.4.10 Misbehaviour of Engine due to Throttle Decelerations especially
when Aircraft is Flying at High Mach Numbers
5.5 Single Engine Design and its Redundancies
CHAPTER 6 FAILURE MODES OF FIGHTER CLASS AIRCRAFT ENGINE COMPONENTS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Failures on Items of Fan Module
6.2.1 Inlet Casing along with Struts
6.2.2 Fan Rotor and Stator Blades
6.2.3 Fan Discs
6.2.4 Fan Casing
6.2.5 Front Transmission Bearing and Associated Seals
6.2.6 Front Bearing Housing
6.2.7 Drive from Front Shaft of the Engine
6.2.8 Fan Module and Miscellaneous Components
6.3 Compressor Module
6.3.1 Compressor Rotor blades
6.3.2 Compressor Stator Blades
6.3.3 Compressor Casings
6.3.4 Compressor Drum or Individual Discs
6.3.5 Lubrication Arrangement for Transmission Bearings
6.3.6 Compressor Shaft
6.3.7 Drive Arrangement for Driving Accessory Gearbox
6.3.8 Secondary Air Management
6.4 Combustor Module
6.4.1 Combustion Chamber Outer Casing
6.4.2 Inner and Outer Liners of Flame Tube and Inner and Outer
Casings of Flame Tube
6.4.3 Main Burner
6.4.4 Swirler
6.4.5 Main Fuel Manifold
6.4.6 Customer Air-bleed Pipe and its Flow
6.4.7 Main Igniters
6.4.8 Combustor Drain Plug
6.5 Turbine Module
6.5.1 High and Low Pressure Nozzle Guide Vanes
6.5.2 High and Low Pressure Turbine Rotor Blades
6.5.3 Casings of the Turbine Module
6.5.4 Shaft of the Turbine Module
6.5.5 Turbine Discs
6.5.6 Cooling Flow Requirements
6.5.7 Bearings of Turbine Module
6.6 Afterburner Module
6.7 Main Transmission of Engine through Accessory Gearbox
6.7.1 Failure of Quill Shaft of Main Fuel Pump
6.7.2 Quill Shaft Failure of Oil Unit
6.7.3 Failure of Pressure Pump System of Exhaust Nozzle
6.7.4 Failure of Variable Guide Vane Mechanism
6.7.5 Fuel Starvation of Engine
6.7.6 High Vibration due to Oil Traces on Disc Diaphragm
6.7.7 Improper Secondary Air Management
6.7.8 Excessive Radial Play of Bearings
6.7.9 Inadequate Torque Tightening of Fasteners
6.7.10 Improper Holding of Items External to Engine
6.7.11 Improper Fits between the Casings
6.7.12 Bird Hit
6.7.13 Foreign Object Damage
6.7.14 Flameout of Engine
6.7.15 Failure of External Pipelines
CHAPTER 7 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINES
7.1 Introduction
7.2 What is a Control System?
7.3 Control Requirements
7.4 Control Parameters
7.5 Controllable Parameters
7.6 Health Monitoring Parameters
7.7 Automatic Control Regime of an Engine
7.8 Manual Mode Control of the Engine
7.9 What is a Control Law?
7.10 Typical Control Law for a Single Spool Fighter Class Turbojet Engine
7.11 Typical Control Law for Twin Spool Turbofan Engine
7.12 Control Law for Twin Spool Turbojet Engine
CHAPTER 8 CONFIGURATION CONTROL AND CERTIFICATION ASPECTS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Configuration Control
8.2.1 Configuration Control and its Efficacies
8.3 Certification of Airborne Items
8.3.1 What is Certification?
8.3.2 Process of Certification
8.4 Configuration Control as an Aid to Certification Process
8.5 Quality Awareness
8.5.1 Failure in Identification of Quality Aspects
8.6 Seamless Co-ordination between Design, Configuration Control,
Certification and Quality Assurance Agencies
8.7 Risk Identification
8.8 Risk Identification and Mitigation during Engine Development Process
CHAPTER 9 ENGINE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEMS AND DESIGN SOUNDNESS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 What is Health Monitoring?
9.3 Tentative List of Monitoring Parameters and Status of Components
9.3.1 Fibroscope Inspection
9.3.2 Inspection of Filters of Oil, Fuel and Air
9.3.3 Spectrometric Oil Analysis Programme
9.3.4 Tracking of Run Down Time (RDT)
9.3.5 Timings of Engine Acceleration and Deceleration
9.3.6 Engine Performance
9.3.7 Tip Clearance Measurements
9.3.8 Vibration Monitoring of the Engine
9.3.9 Health of Structural Components and Usage Monitoring
9.3.10 Survey of Flight Data Recorder
9.3.11 Data Generation for Critical Parameters of the Engine
CHAPTER 10 IDENTIFICATION AND MITIGATION OF RISKS IN POWER PLANT DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION

10.1 Introduction
10.2 MIL Specifications
10.3 Definition of Item
10.3.1 Conceived Risk
10.4 Item diagram
10.4.1 Conceived Risk
10.5 Interface Definition
10.5.1 Conceived Risk
10.6 Externally Applied Forces
10.6.1 Conceived Risk
10.7 Gyroscopic Loads
10.7.1 Conceived Risk
10.8 Engine Mounts
10.8.1 Conceived Risk
10.9 Pads and Drives
10.9.1 Conceived Risk
10.10 Engine Surface Temperature and Heat Rejection
10.10.1 Conceived Risk
10.11 Air and Gas Leakage
10.11.1 Conceived Risk
10.12 Engine Air Inlet System
10.12.1 Conceived Risk
10.13 Bleed Air System
10.13.1 Conceived Risk
10.14 Connections
10.14.1 Conceived Risk
10.15 Major Component List
10.15.1 Conceived Risk
10.16 Performance Characteristics
10.16.1 Conceived Risk
10.17 Limits of Operating Parameters of the Engine
10.17.1 Starting Limits
10.17.2 Altitude Limits in Terms of Service and Absolute Ceiling
10.17.3 Rotor Speed Limits of the Spools and its Margins
10.17.4 Oil Pressure and Temperature Limits
10.17.5 Oil Consumption Limits
10.17.6 Vibration limits
10.17.7 Fuel Flow Rate and Pressure and its Limits
10.17.8 Customer Bleed Flow and Power off-take Limits
10.17.9 Acceleration and Deceleration Time Limits
10.17.10 Run Down Time Limits
10.17.11 Jet Pipe Temperature (JPT) Limits
10.17.12 Operating Time Limitations at Various Ratings of Engine
10.17.13 Limits on Overall Performance Parameters of Engine
10.17.14 ‘g’ Limits during Flight
10.17.15 Limits on Duration of Inverted Flight
10.17.16 Permissible Fatigue Limits
10.18 Operating Envelope Encompassing Mach Number and Altitude Conditions
10.18.1 Conceived Risk
10.19 Operating Attitude and Conditions
10.19.1 Conceived Risk
10.20 Starting Characteristics of Engine
10.20.1 Conceived Risk
10.21 Stopping System of Engine
10.21.1 Conceived Risk
10.22 Idle Characteristics of the Engine
10.22.1 Conceived Risk
10.23 Stability of Operation of Engine
10.23.1 Conceived Risk
10.24 Thrust Transients
10.24.1 Conceived Risk
10.25 Windmilling Capability of Engine
10.25.1 Conceived Risk
10.26 Physical Characteristics
10.26.1 Conceived Risk
10.27 Reliability of Power Plant
10.27.1 Conceived Risk
10.28 Maintainability
10.28.1 Conceived Risk
10.29 Environmental Conditions
10.29.1 Ambient Temperature Conditions
10.29.2 Icing Conditions and Performance Test on Engine
10.29.3 Fungus Resistance
10.29.4 Humidity Resistance
10.29.5 Corrosive Atmosphere Conditions and its Resistance by Engine
10.29.6 Noise Level
10.29.7 Exhaust Gas Emission
10.29.8 Transportability
10.29.9 Environmental Ingestion and Withstanding Capability of Engine  10.29.10 Design and Construction
10.29.11 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3)
10.29.12 Name Plate and Product Marking
10.29.13 Workmanship
10.29.14 Inter-changeability
10.29.15 Safety
10.29.16 Structural Performance
10.29.17 Containment and Rotor Structural Integrity
10.29.18 Change in Vendors or Fabrication Process
10.29.19 Documentation
10.29.20 Maintenance of Engine at Operation
10.29.21 Facilities and Facility Equipments
10.29.22 Major Component Characteristics
10.29.23 Fuel System
10.29.24 Fuel System Performance
10.29.25 Electrical System
10.29.26 Ignition System
10.29.27 Instrumentation System
10.29.28 Lubrication System
10.29.29 Hydraulic System
10.29.30 Pneumatic System
10.29.31 Starting System
10.29.32 Exhaust Nozzle System
10.29.33 Water Injection System
CHAPTER 11 QUALITY CONTROL ASPECTS AND SYSTEM FAILURES OF ENGINE
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Pre-Flight Rating Test (PFRT)
11.3 Production Release (PR)
11.3.1 Acceptance Test (AT)
11.4 Quality Conformance Inspections
11.5 Manner of Test and Reporting
11.5.1 Test Surveillance
11.5.2 Test Article Configuration
11.6 System Failures of Engine
11.6.1 Main Engine Flameout
11.6.2 Afterburner Flameout Occurring in Afterburner Mode
11.6.3 High Vibration on Engine Causing Flameout
11.6.4 High Oil Consumption
11.6.5 High Jet Pipe Temperature
11.6.6 Surge Symptoms of the Engine
11.6.7 Yellow Flame at the Exhaust during Afterburner Engagement
11.6.8 Improper Acceleration and Deceleration Timings of Engine
11.7 Conclusion
CHAPTER 12 RISK IN ENGINE PROJECT AND ITS MANAGEMENT
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Project Management – What it is ?
12.3 Risks during Project Implementation
12.3.1 Alignments and Misalignments
12.3.2 Misinterpretation of Project Definition
12.3.3 Unanimity of Direction
12.3.4 Proper Co-ordination
12.3.5 Improper Assumptions
12.3.6 Inadequate Values
12.3.7 Improper Control Flow
12.3.8 Risks of Innovation
12.3.9 Technological Forecasting
12.3.10 Marketability of the Product
12.3.11 Poor Initial Planning
12.3.12 Lack of Clear Objectives and Deliverables
12.3.13 Inadequate Resource Allocation
12.3.14 Poor Risk Analysis
12.3.15 Poor Understanding of Priorities
12.3.16 Old Technologies
12.3.17 Failure due to Outsourcing
12.4 Mitigation of Risk
12.5 Programme Management

Conclusion
Appendix
Goodman Diagram
Alternate Stress (S) vs Cyclic Life (N)
Campbell Diagram
Larson-Miller Parameter
Coffin-Manson Rule
Miner’s Rule
Abbreviations
References
Index

About The Authors

Mr C Jaganathan retired from DRDO service as Additional Director, Gas Turbine Research Establishment, Bangalore. He was looking after the assembly and testing of engines, engine subsystems like main and afterburner fuel system, variable guide vane mechanisms, exhaust nozzle control systems and certification of ab initio power plants, and the like. He has served for 25 years as airworthiness engineer ensuring certification requirements of both Russian and Western power plants built at the engine division at HAL, Koraput and Bangalore.

 

Air Commodore S K Jain is presently posted to an Operational Command in IAF. He specialises in the field of aerospace propulsion and has vast experience of manufacturing, repair and overhaul of aero engines. He was earlier posted to Gas Turbine Research Establishment, Bangalore, to overview progress of Kaveri Project and to provide necessary assistance in design and development of Kaveri aero engine for LCA.

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