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Geospatial Technology – For Integrated Natural Resources Management

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Authors: Dwivedi R S, Parth Sarathi Roy

ISBN: 9789380381480

Copy Right Year: 2016

Pages:  488

Binding: Soft Cover

Publisher:  Yes Dee Publishing

SKU: 9789380381480 Category:

Description

Ensuring food, water, energy and environmental security on a sustained basis calls for integrated management and optimal utilization of available natural resources based on their potential and limitations. The information on the nature, extent, spatial distribution, potential and limitations of natural resources is a pre-requisite in this endeavour. Recognized and advocated as a powerful tool, the role of geospatial technology in deriving information on natural resources, and its integration with other legacy information to arrive at suitable decisions for their integrated management will continue to expand. Geospatial Technology for Integrated Natural Resources Management delineates how to derive information on natural resources and integrate it with terrain for integrated natural resources management and disseminate it to the users.

Additional information

Weight .7 kg
Dimensions 23 × 17 × 2 cm

Table of Content

Chapter 1  GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Remote Sensing
1.2.1 Energy–Matter Interactions
1.2.2 Remote Sensing Systems and Sensors
1.2.3 Selection of Remote Sensing Data
1.2.4 Preprocessing of Remote Sensing Data
1.2.5 Data Analysis/Interzpretation
1.2.6 Indian Earth Observations Programme
1.2.7 Indian Earth Observation Applications Programme
1.3 Geographic Information System
1.3.1 Concepts of Space and Time
1.3.2 Data Representation in GIS
1.3.3 Data Models
1.3.4 Raster Versus Vector Data Models
1.3.5 Layers and Coverages in GIS
1.3.6 Projections and Coordinate Systems
1.3.7 Developments in GIS
1.4 Global Positioning System
1.4.1 Components of GPS
1.4.2 Principle of GPS
1.4.3 GPS Positioning Types
1.4.4 Factors Affecting Accuracy
1.4.5 Applications
1.5 Field Sensors and Data Communication Devices
1.5.1 Automatic Weather Station (AWS)
1.5.2 Mobile Devices
1.5.3 Cellular Phones
1.5.4 PDA Phone with GPS
1.6 Data/Information Storage and Outreach
1.6.1 Internet
1.6.2 Field Data Transmission
1.6.3 Sensor Web
1.7 Information Integration
1.7.1 Direct Use as Driving Variable and Updating a State Variable
1.7.2 Model Integration in GIS
1.8 Epilogue
Chapter  2 SOIL RESOURCES
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Spectral Reflectance of Soils
2.2.1 Spectral Measurements
2.2.2 Factors Affecting Spectral Reflectance
2.3 The Hyperspectral Approach
2.4 Soil Resources Mapping
2.4.1 Aerial Photographs
2.4.2 Airborne Multispectral Measurements
2.4.3 Space-Borne Multispectral Data
2.5 Operational Soil Mapping
2.6 Challenges Ahead and Future Perspectives
2.6.1 Mapping Soils in Presence of Vegetation Cover and Crop Residues
2.6.2 Information on Third Dimension of Soils
2.6.3 Soil Moisture Estimation
2.6.4 Identification of Homogeneous Management Zones
2.6.5 Inferring Soil Properties from Crop’s Spectral Response
2.7 Epilogue
Chapter 3 MINERALS AND OIL 

3.1 Minerals and Oil: Global Scenario
3.2 Hydrocarbon: Global Scenario
3.3 Minerals and Oil: Indian Scenario
3.4 Minerals and Oil Exploration and Earth Observation (EO)
3.4.1 Spectral Characteristics of Minerals
3.4.2 Earth Observation for Mineral Exploration
3.4.3 Data Integration for Mineral Exploration
3.4.4 Imaging SAR for Mineral Deposit Investigation: A Case Study
3.4.5 Earth Observation Technology for Oil Exploration
3.4.6 Data Integration for Oil Exploration
3.4.7 Geological Data Visualization
3.5 Conclusions
Chapter 4  SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Spectral Response Pattern of Water
4.2.1 Spectral Response to Water Quality
4.2.2 Spectral Characteristics of Snow/Ice and Clouds
4.3 Sustainable Water Resources Management
4.3.1 Water Resources Assessment
4.3.2 Water Resources Development
4.3.3 Water Resources Management
4.4 Impact of LULC and Climate Change on Hydrological Regime
4.4.1 Impact of LULC on Hydrological Regime
4.4.2 Impact of Climate Change on Hydrological Regime of a River Basin
4.5 Conclusions

Chapter  5  GROUND WATER RESOURCES
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Global and Regional Scenarios
5.3 Ground Water Occurrence
5.3.1 World Scenario
5.3.2 Indian Scenario
5.4 Role of Geospatial Technologies in Ground Water Investigations
5.4.1 Earth Observation Satellite Data
5.4.2 Geographic Information System
5.4.3 Global Navigation Satellite System
5.4.4 Major Applications
5.5 Indian Initiatives
5.5.1 Case Studies
5.6 Conclusions and the Way Forward
Chapter  6  SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Sustainable Forestry
6.2 Demand and Pressures on Forests
6.2.1 Land for Agriculture
6.2.2 Timber
6.2.3 Fuel Wood
6.2.4 Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs)
6.2.5 Grazing
6.3 Impacts of Demands and Pressure on Forest Ecosystems
6.3.1 Shifting Cultivation
6.3.2 Forest Fragmentation
6.3.3 Deforestation Assessment
6.3.4 Forest Fire
6.3.5 Invasive Species
6.4 Resource Availability
6.4.1 Forest Cover Assessment
6.4.2 Forest Type Assessment
6.4.3 Forest Density Assessment
6.4.4 Wildlife Habitat Assessment
6.4.5 Quantification of the Forest Resources
6.4.6 Species Niche Models
6.5 Monitoring and Amelioration
6.5.1 Forest Working Plan
6.5.2 Afforestation and Reforestation
6.6 Modelling and Visualization
6.6.1 Land Cover Change Modelling
6.6.2 Geostatistical Modelling of Land Cover Change in Meghalaya
6.6.3 GEOMOD-Based Land Cover Change Prediction
6.6.4 Agent-Based Land Use and Land Cover Models
6.6.5 Habitat Change Models
6.6.6 Ecological Corridor Models
6.7 Gaps and Future Directions
Chapter  7  LAND DEGRADATION
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Background
7.2.1 Soil Erosion
7.2.2 Soil Salinization and/or Alkalization
7.2.3 Waterlogging
7.2.4 Soil Compaction and Crusting
7.3 Role of Geospatial Technology
7.3.1 Aerial Photographs
7.3.2 Airborne Videography and Multi-Spectral Measurements
7.3.3 Airborne Geophysical Measurements
7.3.4 Spectral Reflectance Studies
7.3.5 Space-Borne Multi-Spectral Data
7.4 Operational Assessment of Land Degradation
7.4.1 Global Assessment
7.4.2 Indian Scenario
7.5 Future Perspectives
7.5.1 Quantification of Soil Loss
7.5.2 Mapping Salt-Affected Soils Under Varying Terrain Conditions
7.5.3 Detection of Subsurface Waterlogging
7.5.4 Generating Information on Third Dimension of Degraded Lands
7.5.5 Creation of Digital Database on Degraded Lands
7.5.6 Generation of Farm-Level Information on Degraded Lands
7.6 Conclusions
Chapter  8  DESERTIFICATION
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Global Scenario
8.3 Desertification Process
8.4 Factors Affecting Desertification
8.4.1 Climate
8.4.2 Population Pressure
8.5 Desertification Trends
8.6 Role of Geospatial Technology
8.7 Desertification Assessment and Mapping
8.7.1 Geospatial Approach
8.7.2 Nation-Wide Desertification Mapping
8.7.3 Soil Degradation Mapping
8.8 Monitoring Desertification
8.8.1 Vegetation Cover Dynamics
8.8.2 Cropland
8.8.3 Waterlogging
8.8.4 Monitoring Wind-Blown Sands
8.8.5 Shelterbelt
8.8.6 Sand Reactivation
8.9 Epilogue
Chapter 9  DIGITAL SOIL RESOURCE DATABASE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Soil Information Systems Across the Globe
9.2.1 Australian Soil Resource Information System (ASRIS)
9.2.2 Canadian Soil Information Service (CanSIS)
9.2.3 STATSGO and SSURGO Database—NRCS
9.2.4 Soil Terrain Databases (SOTER)
9.2.5 e-SOTER-GEOSS
9.2.6 Global Soil Map.net
9.2.7 World Inventory of Soil Emission Potential (WISE)
9.2.8 Integrated National Agricultural Resource Information System (INARIS)
9.3 Development of Digital Soil Resources Database
9.3.1 Data Source for Soils
9.3.2 Digitization of Soil Maps
9.3.3 Attribute Data Standardization
9.3.4 Attribute Database Development
9.3.5 Development of Metadata Standards
9.4 Development of Digital Terrain Database
9.4.1 Data Source for Digital Terrain Database
9.4.2 Digital Terrain Data Processing
9.4.3 Development of Seamless Digital Terrain Database
9.5 Design and Development of Soil Information System
9.5.1 Conceptual Framework of Soil Information System
9.5.2 Data Cataloguing
9.5.3 Soil Database Query
9.5.4 Spatial Data Mining
9.6 Applications of Digital Soil Resource Database and Information System
9.6.1 Thematic Mapping and Analysis
9.6.2 Soil-Landscape Modelling
9.6.3 Characterization of Agro-Ecological Regions and Sub-Regions

9.6.4 Land Evaluation
9.6.5 Soil Suitability Evaluation
9.6.6 Perspective Land-Use Planning
9.6.7 Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk
9.6.8 Assessment of Land Degradation
9.6.9 Development of Soil Conservation Strategies
9.6.10 Assessment of Land Productivity Potential
9.6.11 Development of Spatial Decision Support Systems
9.6.12 Policy Formulation in Land Resource Management
9.7 Conclusions
Chapter 10  WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Sustainable Development
10.3 Background
10.3.1 Watershed Approach
10.3.2 Watershed Management
10.3.3 Guiding Principles
10.3.4 Steps in Watershed Management
10.4 Role of Geospatial Technology
10.4.1 Delineation of Watersheds
10.4.2 Watershed Characterization
10.4.3 Watershed Prioritization
10.4.4 Generation of Developmental Plan
10.4.5 Monitoring and Impact Assessment
10.5 Operational Applications of Geospatial Technology
10.5.1 Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD)
10.5.2 Sujala Watershed Project
10.5.3 National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP)
10.6 A Case Study
10.6.1 Location
10.6.2 Database
10.6.3 Approach
10.6.4 Thematic Maps
10.6.5 Impact Assessment
10.7 Conclusions
Chapter 11  GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCESS AND DISSEMINATION
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Means of Geospatial Data Access
11.3 Access to Non-digital Geospatial Data
11.4 Access to Digital Geospatial Data
11.4.1 Desktop GIS
11.4.2 Distributed/Enterprise GIS
11.4.3 Internet/Web GIS
11.4.4 Services-Based Data Access
11.4.5 Service-Based Data Sharing—A Case Study
11.4.6 Mobile GIS
11.5 Spatial Data Infrastructure
11.5.1 Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure
11.6 Conclusions

Index

About The Authors

Dr. Ravi shankar Dwivedi has earned his Ph.D., in soils, and has obtained Advanced Diploma in Remote Sensing from the University of Berlin, Germany. He had been associated with remote sensing applications for over three decades, and superannuated as Group Director, Land Resources, National Remote Sensing Centre (ISRO) in 2011. Currently he is associated with JNTU, Hyderabad, India.

Dr. Parth Sarathi Roy is Ph.D., in Ecology. He has obtained Advanced Diploma in Remote Sensing from the University of Freiburg, Germany. He has held various key positions in National/ International organizations of repute viz. National Remote Sensing Center (ISRO), India Institute of Remote Sensing (ISRO) and Center for Space Science and Technology Applications for Asia and the Pacific (affiliated to the United Nations). He superannuated as Director,  Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (ISRO) in 2012. Presently, he is Chair Professor in the University of Hyderabad, India.

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